An assembly line is a kind of manufacturing process. In this process, various interchangeable parts of a particular machine or vehicle are sequentially added to get the final product. The factory assembly line is so-called because the whole process takes place within various workstations or factories. As the parts are moved mechanically, this system is faster than humans.
The main purpose of the assembly line is to decrease the movement of the workers or assemblers and the components to the least possible. There are human operators for the motorized vehicles in which the components are moved. But most of the time, the line is semi-automatic. Later, this principle has been primarily applied by businessmen who took over their respective fields.
Varieties and Advantages of the Assembly Line
Depending on the various methodologies of multiple companies, the assembly lines are described below:
Its primary focus is to maximize the rate of products delivered in a particular time-frame. Automobile manufacturing factories mostly use this line system.
This method has been the result of excessive use of machine cells to move the various components. Cell operators and robots are used for controlling and handling the materials. The machines can be run by one operator or a multi-person team. It reduces the amount of investment required for new machinery.
It is a recent development in the assembly-line system. Here, a whole team completes a task from the beginning to the end sequentially.
U-Shaped Assembly Line:
A-line sometimes may not be the best preferable structure in which to organize an assembly line. In this system, workers are aligned on the inside of the curve. It makes communication easier than the straight line. Assemblers can observe minutely every process and one person can perform multiple operations. Due to the easy communication process between the workers, it simplified the cross-training process. Also, it has an easy changeover for the U-shaped line. Thus, the multiple benefits of the U-shaped line have increased its use rapidly.
Although most of the advantages are already described above, still some disadvantages are remaining to be mentioned. In some crafted articles, due to the engagement of multiple workers, the individual artistry is no more observed.
The machines are doing human tasks that impose a threat to human work life. By any means, machines cannot be the complement of humans. In developing countries like India, it may be one of the main reasons for unemployment.