The Lorawan Network Server allows connectivity management and monitoring of devices, gateways, and end-user applications. The LORA-specific architecture consists of an end node, a gateway module, which forwards messages from the end node to the network server. The network server implements the Lorawan protocol, checks the authenticity and integrity of the devices, deduplicates uplinks to the selected gateway, uses downlinks, and sends ADR commands to optimize the data rate between devices.
When a message is sent from a LORA terminal device to a receiving gateway device, a star-by-star network topology is created. Based on the Lorawan concentrator NAS IER000 and the Lorawan Gateway, Nordic Automation System connects all Lora products in the Lorawan network to collect real-time data and provide feedback when needed.
There is a one-to-one relationship between LORA gateways in the Lorawan network and messages are sent to terminals within the gateway area. The Lorawan Gateway receives the modulated RF messages from LORA from the terminal device and hears the removal of messages from Lorawan Network Servers (LNs) connected to the IP backbone.
LORA gateway is an alliance of physical layers that enables far-reaching communication connections. Lorawan is described as a “communication protocol and system architecture network,” or Lora is the alliance of “physical layers that enable far-reaching communication connections.”.
Its architecture consists of a core-wired network that implements mechanisms to provide registration, security and receipt services to one or more gateways and C-IoT devices at the end nodes. Lorawan gateways are located at the heart of the LORA star topology and are the bridge between the terminals and the network servers. Gateways are responsible for the registration of nodes in the network and are also used for data acquisition.
Sensor nodes in IoT systems acquire data from one or more sensors and transmit the data to the gateway through short-range wireless communication protocols such as Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), Wi-Fi, Zigbee. The data is transmitted to the terminal device, which receives several gateway data packets from a central network server. In IoT solutions, gateway data from the sensor nodes are sent to the cloud (Internet) for global storage and processing.
Lorawan is a cloud-based Media Access Control layer protocol that acts as a network layer protocol and manages communications between LPWAN gateways and terminal devices via a routing protocol maintained by the LORA Alliance. It is a sublayer of the Layer 2 protocol, which acts as a network layer of the Layer 3 protocol and controls the communication between the GPWAN gateway and the terminal devices via the routing protocol.
According to the Lorawan specification defined by the Lora Alliance, the gateway module transmits data via the receiving slot to the Class A node and initiates it by sending a packet to the alliance. What happens when a Lora module and an Internet chip (ESP8266) are connected consists of a Lorawan gateway and both modules are connected through the Internet to the LORA network.
This paper defines the maximum number of LORA nodes that can communicate with the gateway, taking into account the specifications of the Lorawan protocol. For this work, we investigated the problem of mass data collection in the Lora network in situations where the gateway is not always available for the reception of data due to the lack of permanent power sources, the lack of satellite coverage, the IoT solutions, etc.
In this paper, we investigate the use of the protocols LORA and Lorawan for the transient communication of ambient sensor data between an IoT device and an IoT gateway. Unlike the technologies in our work, which focus on data collection from devices distributed over a large geographical area, long-distance protocols like Lora are required. In the following practical papers, we will investigate how to use LORAs and Lorawans protocols to send and receive sensor data over considerable distances between IoT devices with a variety of embedded sensors and IoT gateways.
WISE-3610 is a wireless private IoT / LORA network gateway for smart buildings, smart cities and industrial 4.0 applications that leverages wireless sensors and technologies. It bundles wireless sensor networks, including Advantech LPWAN technology and private LORA technology from wired sensors, and connects them to an IP network. Lorawan is an open protocol based on which it is perfect for applications that require extended, deeply integrated communication with a large number of low-power devices to collect small quantities of data.
It connects devices to the Internet and manages communication between terminal devices and network gateways. Lorawan enables terminals such as sensors and actuators to connect to the Lorawan Network Radio Gateway using LORA RF modulation. The gateway server manages and secures the gateway connection and configuration.
LORA is a term that refers to a system that supports radio modulation techniques, a method of manipulating radio waves to encrypt information using chirping chirps, spread spectrum technologies, and multi-symbol formats for communication networks and IoT solutions. Using Media Access Control protocol, the Low Range Wide Area Network (LORA – Low Range – WAN) is an open standard defined by the Lora Alliance, taking into account Lora’s energy-efficient nature. The fact is that many devices rely on Lora gateways for their battery supply.